Wednesday, August 17, 2005

Reference web sites given below
Please click on the topic u want to study

1. Basics, Introductions, Hyperlinks
2. Circulatory System
3. Digestive System
4. Endocrine System
5. Excretory System
6. Immunological System
7. Lymphatic System
8. Muscular, Skeletal System
9. Nervous System
10. Reproduction, Development
11. Respiratory System
12. Tissues, Organs

13 Unit Photos, Illustrations, GIF's

Basics, Introductions, Hyperlinks
Anatomy and Physiology I
Anatomy and Physiology II — Basic information and resources
Animal Size: Square Cube Law I Animal Size: Square Cube Law II
Biological Clock (Circadium Rhythms)
Biological Clock and Circadium Rhythms I — Info
Biological Clock and Circadium Rhythms II — Function
Developmental Systems — links
Dizziness & Motion Sickness I Dizziness & Motion Sickness II
Gray's Anatomy — Anatomy of the human body
Health Issues: WebMD Health — Extensive health & medical topics
Homeostasis and Organ Systems — Comprehensive with 20+ hyperlinks, diagrams
Human Anatomy — Great site! Hyperlinks to identify structures of all systems
Human Anatomy and Physiology — Elementary level Human Anatomy and Physiology —Visable Human Project
Human Anatomy Online — Inner Body: Hyperlinked systems plus information
Human Biology — K12 thru College. NBII
Human Body: Elements Utilized
Human Death: Definitions and Significance
On-Line Biology Book
Temperature Regulation: Homeotherms

Circulatory System

Arteries and Veins
Blood — Composition, hyperlinks
Blood: Artificial/Synthetic I — Development
Blood: Artificial/Synthetic II
Blood Brain Barrier I — Elementary Blood Brain Barrier II — Info, diagrams Blood Brain Barrier III — Info, diagrams
Blood Cells — ID'ed and Illustrations
Blood Cells: Red — Structure, function, properties
Blood: Coagulation Factors — 12 hyperlinked topics
Blood: Coontents, Function I — Complete descriptions
Blood: Contents and FunctionII
Blood Group ABO Antigens I
Blood Group ABO Antigens II
Blood Groups; Histocompatibility
Blood: Rh Factor
Blood Pressure and Smoking I
Blood Pressure and Smoking II
Blood Types — Background information
Blood Typing Systems
Blood Typing: Universal Donors, Recipients
Blood Vessels
Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics
Capillary Exchange: Hemodynamics
Cardiovascular Structure & Function
Circulatory System
Circulatory Systems: Structure, Function I
Circulatory Systems: Structure, Function II — Extensive diagrams (heart, etc.)
Fick Principle — Measuring cardiac output
Heart — Structure, function
Heart Chambers: Evolution — Over time
Heart and Myocardium
Heart: An Online Exploration
Heart Structure & Function — Basic Overview (check out the internal links as well)
Heart, Table of Contents — Over 60 hyperlinks; extensive
Heart Valves I — Anatomy and function Valves II — Anatomy and function
Heme and Porphyrin Biosynthesis
Hemoglobin — Survey, Info, diagrams
Hemoglobin Allostery I
Hemoglobin Allostery II
Hemoglobin and Myoglobin
Hemoglobin Oxygen Binding
Hemoglobin: Regulation
Hemoglobin Structure
Hemoglobin: Structure and Function I
Hemoglobin: Structure and Function II
Hemoglobin Synthesis
Hemoglobin, Oxygen Transport I
Hemoglobin, Oxygen Transport II — Bohr Effect
High Altitude Effects
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport I
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport II
Red Blood Cells — Information
Thermoregulation — Human heat and cold stress

Digestive System

Accessory Glands
Bile: Characteristics and Function
Bile and Cholesterol Metabolism — 5 appropriate links
Cholesterol and Bile Metabolism
Digestive System — Extensive internal hyperlinks
Dietary Pyramid — Food Guide
Digestive Enzymes, Zymogens
Digestion Process — Time of passage throughthe digestive tract
Digestive System I — Comprehensive 20+ topical hyperlinks, diagrams
Digestive System II — Structure. function
Digestive System: Pathophysiology — Introduction, digestive tract and variations
Elements: Human Body I
Elements: Human Body II
Flatulence and Oligosaccharides
Gall Bladder — Function
Gastrointestinal Track — 11 internal links, info, illustrations
Intestine: Labeled Diagram — Very basic
Intestine: Large — Introduction and index
Minerals: Essential
Minerals: Nutrients and Toxins — 117 hyperlinked minerals
Mouth — Illustration, information
Nutrition and Health Links
Oral Cavity
Pancreas: Exocrine Secretions — Information, animated illustration
Peptic Ulcer Fact Sheet — Helicobacter pylori
Peptic Ulcers elicobacter pylori
Poisons: How They Work
Scoop on Poop — Fecal analysis and information
Small Intestine I
Small Intestine II — Introduction and Index Intestine: Absorption — General Mechanisms Intestine: Absorption of Amino Acids and Peptides Small Intestine: Absorption of Lipids Small Intestine: Absorption of Monosaccharides Small Intestine: Absorption of Water and Electrolytes Small Intestine Anatomy — Gross and microscopic Intestine: Motility Small Intestine: Secretion Villi Intestine: Villi, Crypts, Intestinal Enterocytes
Stomach and Esophagus
Transport Across the Intestinal Epithelium — Overview
Tyrosine — Sources, physiology, calming/sleepy effects
Vitamins: Role of — Description, links and Minerals — Role, sources, candidates for suppliments. Chart, links

Endocrine System

Adenyl Cyclase Regulation
Adrenal Glands — Introduction, indes
Adrenal Glands — Hormones, extensive information
Adrenaline (Epinephrine)
Amino Acid Derivatives: Hormones
Diabetes (Insulin Deficiency) — Types 1 and 2
Endocrine Glands I — Structure, function, hormones
Endocrine Glands II
Endocrine Glands III
Endocrine Organs I
Endocrine Organs II
Endocrines and Reproduction — female, male
Endocrine System I — Extensive internal hyperlinks
Endocrine System II — Comprehensive with 11 topical hyperlinks, diagrams, hormone structure
Endocrine System III
Endocrine Systems
Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
Estrogen Biosynthesis: Males & Females
Feedback Mechanisms
Growth Factors and Cytokines — Cell receptors: growth/differentiation.
Hormone Action — One and two messenger models
Hormone Action: Mechanisms
Hormone Characteristics
Hormone Communication With Target Cells
Hormone Links
Hormone Receptor Disorders
Hormones: Cell Surface Receptors
Hormones, General Aspects
Hormones, Receptors, and Target Cells
Hormones of the Reproductive System — Male, female, menstrual cycle
Hormones: Sources, Targets and Functions I — Includes cell receptor models
Hormones: Sources, Targets and Functions II — Includes cell receptor models
Hormone Systems — Characteristics, mechanisms, comp[arisons
Hormones: Peptide — 12 links
Hormones: Steroid — 5 links
Hormone Table: Vertebrates — 14 hormone hyperlinks
Hypothalamus — Structure and function
Hypothalamus and Autonomic Nervous System
Hypothalamus Hormones
Hypothalamus and Pituitary — Introduction and index
Insulin-Glucose Feedback System I Insulin-Glucose Feedback System II
Insulin: Isolation and Structure
Insulin Structure and Function — Discussion
Insulin Synthesis — Proinsulin
Intestinal Tract Endocrine Hormones
Membranes and Receptors — Overview
Pancreas Function
Pancreatic Hormones
Parathyroid Gland — Functiom
Peptide Hormones — 18 hyperlinks to hormone families
Peptide Hormone Receptors
Pheromone and Mammals
Pheromones — Brief Science News article
Pheromones: Sexual Attraction
Pheromones: Menstrual Cycle Synchronization
Pheromones Unnecessary Due to Color Vision
Pineal Gland
Pituitary Gland — Info, structure, function
Pituitary Gland and Hypothalmus I — Labeled diagram, notes
Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus II — Information, internal links
Pituitary Hormones — Many internal links
Poisons: How They Work
Posterior Pituitary Hormones — Info, feedback, ADH, oxytocin
Prostaglandins I — Clinical implications, corticosteroids
Prostaglandins II
Prostaglandin III
Receptors — ligands, hormones - broad discussion
Reproductive Hormones
Signal Transduction I — Cyclic GMP, info, diagrams Transduction II — Expansive info
Signal Transduction III — 11 hyperlinks
Signal Transduction IV — Info and extensive links
Seasonal Affective Disorder: Light, depression, melatonin
Steroid Hormone Receptors
Thyroid Gland I — Overview
Thyroid Gland II — Info, diseases
Thyroid Gland III
Vasopressin: Antidiuretic Hormone I
Vasopressin: Antidiuretic Hormone II

Excretory System

Asparagus and Urine Odor I — sulfur compounds and a genetic factor
Asparagus and Urine Odor II
Excretory System — Comprehensive with 11 topical hyperlinks, diagrams
Excretory Systems:
Kidney Dialysis I
Kidney Dialysis II — Info, diagrams
Kidney: Structure. Function — Information, diagram, chart
Nephron I
Nephron II
Nephron: Glomerular Filtration
Nephron Structure and Function — Information and diagram
Nephron Information Center — hyperlinks
Ornithine Cycle
Urea (Ornithene) Cycle
Urea Cycle: Nitrogen Metabolism — — Heme synthesis, regulation, metabolism. 9 hyperlinks
Uric Acid — Info, links
Urinary System

Immunological System

AIDS and HIV Resources
AIDS: Immune System
Antibody Structure I — Introduction
Antibody Structure II — Introduction
Antibodies — Information, no diagrams
Antibodies: Peptides as Immunogens
Antibodies and Therapy — Engineering of
Antibody Production by Lymphocytes
Antibody Production: Macrophages, T Lymphocytes
Autoimmune Disease — Facts
B Cells and T Cells — Extensive info and diagrams
Blood Typing Systems
Cell: Lines of Biological Defence
Cell Mediated and Humoral Immunity
Cytokinens and Growth Factors — Platelet/fibroblast factors, insulin, interleukin, etc. 17 links
DNA Vaccine — Description, information
ELISA Activity, Introduction — Full description and illustrations
Disease Defense Mechanisms — Outlined notes
Diseases/Disorders — Alphabetic list
HIV-1: gp120 Exterior Envelope Glycoprotein — Structure
HIV Vaccine — Epitopes, Peptide
HIV Vaccine Development — Status report
Humoral Immunity
Humoral Response — Basic elementary
Ig Image Collection
Immune Deficiencies — Descriptions, support groups, extensive hyperlinks
Immune Response: Memory Cells
Immune Response System
Immune System I — Info, diagrams
Immune System II —13 internal links
Immunity: Specifics
Immunology: AIDS, Elisa Assay, Western Blotting Analysis
Immunology Glossary add
Immunology and Microbiology — Problem Sets and Tutorials
Inate Immunity — Nonspecific body defenses. Scroll down
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) — Extensive description. Information
Monoclonal Antibodies I — Information. 6 internal links
Monoclonal Antibodies II
Monoclonal Antibody Production
Monoclonal Antibody Technology — Basics
Pollen Allergy
Rhesus (Rh) Factor — Genotypes, antibodies, complete information
Rh Factor I
Rh Factor II
Thymus gland I — Function
Thymus Gland II — Information, diagram
Xenotransplantation — Description and disadvantages

Lymphatic System

Lymphatic System and Immunity — Comprehensive 20+ topical hyperlinks, diagrams
Lymphatic System I
Lymphatic System II — (See Immunology as well)
Lymphatic System III — Info, diagrams
Lymphoid Tissues

Muscular and Skeletal System

Actin Myosin Interaction — Scroll down to AM1c
Bone Cells: Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts
Bone Formation — Revies
Joints: Types of
Muscle Biochemistry — 10 hyperlinks:structure/function, rigor mortis, etc.
Muscles — Extensive Links, Complete unit
Muscles: Soreness — Cause during and after exercise
Muscles: Voltage Gated Ion Channels
Muscle Structure and Function
Muscular and Skeletal Systems — Comprehensive: topical hyperlinks, diagrams
Muscle List — By body sections. Hyperlinks and illustrations
Muscle Tables: Human Body — By body sections. Hyperlinks
Myosin — Power stroke of contraction
Myoglobin and Hemoglobin — Discussion, illustration
Neuromuscular Transmission
Rigor Mortis
Shivering: Minimizing Changes in Body Temperature
Skeleton — Electronic Textbook. Extensive info and links
Skeletons — Comparison: human, gorilla, and baboon
Skeletal System — Info, diagrams, male vs female
Skeleton Project — Bone hyperlinks: human, gorilla, baboon
Skeletal System I — Frontal view System II — Rear view
Skeletal System III — Homeostasis
Sliding Filament Hypothesis — Scroll down to Skeletal Muscle Structure

Nervous System, Senses

Amygdala — Structure, function
Autonomic Nervous System I — Basics, high school
Autonomic Nervous System II — Structure, function, organization
Autonomic Nervous System III — Extensive information. Two pages
Autonomic Nervous System IV — Info
Balance Organs — Structure and Function. Ear
Blindness — Legal definition
Brain Atlas
Brain Atlas — Normal structures, duseases
Brain Cells — Info, labeled diagram
Brain Death
Brain Differences: Male-Female
Brain Lateralization — Left/right handedness
Brain: Neurogenesis?
Brain: Pleasure Systems
Brain, Spinal Cord Exploration — For kids
Brain Stem — Brief info, diagram
Brain Structure and Function I — 100 labeled diagrams
Brain: Structure and Function II — Information, diagram
Brain Structures — Illustrations only^Page+2
Chemical Senses Research Center — Monell, excellent, topical hyperlinks
Cholinesterase — Info
Cholinesterase Inhibition
Color Vision
Ear Anatomy — 16 links
Embryonic Induction — Extensive links, slides
Excitable Cells and The Resting Membrane Potential — Subdivided links. Thorough.
Eyes and Ears
Eye: Structure, Function I — Information, diagrams, photomicrographs
Eye: Structure, Function II
Glaucoma — National Eye Institute: Information, diagrams
Hypothalamus and Autonomic Nervous System
Marijuana — Long and short term effects
Nervous System — Comprehensive with 26+ topical hyperlinks, diagrams
Nervous System: Building Blocks — An interactive tutorial
Neurotransmitters — Neural and neuromuscular junctions
Neuromuscular Junction I
Neuromuscular Junction II — Atypical synapse Junction: Motor End Plate — Information, photomicrograph
Neuromuscular Transmission
Neurotransmitter: Acetylcholine
Neuron: Action Potential — For kids but well done.
Neuron Physiology I — Extensive info, diagrams
Neuron Physiology II
Neurons: Resting Potential I
Neurons: Resting Potential II
Neurons: Saltitory Conduction — Definition, diagram
Neurons: Voltage Gated Ion Channels
Neuroscience: Brain Backgrounders — Hyperlinks to basic neuroscience questions
Neuroscience: Brain Briefings — Hyperlinks to neuroscience articles
Neuroscience for Kids — Well done with 12 topics
Neurons and Synapses: Function
Neuron Types — Elementary
Neurotransmitter Biochemistry — Synapses, transmitters. 9 links
Neurotransmitter Release
Neurotransmitters: Biochemistry — 9 neurotransmitters
Reflex Arc I — Illustrated diagram Reflex Arc II — Diagram, info
Reflex Arc III
Scoptic vs. Photopic Vision
Sensation and Perception — Taste, smell, chemosensory irritation
Sense: Hearing — Extensive info and diagrams
Sense: Hearing — Hair cell signals
Sense: Sight Theme Page — Extensive links, activities
Senses: Seeing, Hearing and Smelling — Extensive information
Sense: Smell I — Information, diagrams Sense: Smell II — Info and many links Sense: Smell III — Info, diagrams, links Sense: Taste I — Diagram info, 5 page links Taste II — Info, links
Sense: Touch
Sense: Smell
Sense: Tasting I
Sense: Tasting II — Plus relationship between taste and smell
Serotonin — Synthesis from tryptophan
Sodium-Potassium-ATPase Pump
Synapse: Details — Info, diagrams
Synaptic Transmission
Tongue Taste Receptors I
Tongue Taste Receptors II
Tryptophan, Serotonin, Sleepiness,11299,192184_199653,00.html
Vision: How We See — Anatomy & physiology sight reception

Reproduction and Development

Birth Control Methods
Cell Differentiation I
Cell Differentiation II Differentiation IIIhttp://
Conception: Eggs and Sperm
Developmental Biology I
Developmental Biology II — Problem sets, tutorials and online resources
Developmental Biology III — Gametogenesis through fetal development
Development: Genetic Basis
Ectopic Pregnancy I Pregnancy II
Ectopic Pregnancy III
Eggs (External) Anatomy
Embryo: Cleavage —Images
Embryology: Ectodermal Derivatives I
Embryology: Ectodermal Derivatives II
Embryology: Endodermal Derivatives
Embryology: Germ Layer Derivatives
Embryology: Mesodermal Derivatives I Embryology: Mesodermal Derivatives II
Embryology Review
Embryonic Development — Introduction
Embryonic Development Tutorials — 13 tutorials
Embryonic Induction — Extensive links, slides
Erectile Tissue: Penis
Extraembryonic Membranes
Female Reproductive System — Labeled X-sections,info, internal links
Female Reproductive System: Mammals
Gametogenesis Topics — Hyperlinks to several organisms
Human Development: Fertilization
Human Reproduction Problem Set — Multiple choice answers, explanations
Male Reproductive System — Information, illustration
Male Reproductive System, Mammals
Menstrual Cycle I — Info and diagrams
Menstrual Cycle II Cycle III
Menstrual Cycle: Hormone Feedback Control — Diagram
Menstrual Cycle Page List — Menu
Menstrual Cycle Synchronization: Pheromones
Nocturnal Emissions
Pheromones and Menstruation
Prostate Cancer — Extensive links
Reproduction: Endocrines — female, male
Reproductive Hormones
Reproductive System Hormones — Male, female, menstrual cycle
Reproductive Physiology — Male, Female
Reproductive System — Comprehensive with16 topical hyperlinks, diagrams
Reproductive System: Female — Info, illustration
Reproductive System: Male — Info, illustration
Sex Organ Development in Humans
Sexual Development — Info
Sexual Selection — Hypotheses about mate choice
Sperm Production
Stem Cell Overview — 16 class activities
Stem Cells I — FAQ Stem Cells II Cells III — Defined, info
Stem Cells IV — Information, Links
Stem Cells V — Primer
Stem Cells VI — Ultimate spare parts?
Stem Cell Research and Applications
Stem Cell Research: Pros & Cons I
Stem Cell Research: Pros & Cons II
Stem Cell Research: Pros & Cons III

Respiratory System

Gas Exchange — Basic
Gas Exchange: Alveolar I — Review of partial pressure
Gas Exchange: Alveolar II — Review of partial pressure
Gas Exchange: Physiology I
Gas Exchange: Physiology II — Info, diagrams
Gas Transport Laws — Henry's Law
Lung Cancer Links
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport I
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport I
Oxygen Dissociation Curve
Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Poisons: How They Work
Respiration — Gas exchange, partial pressure, transport, hemoglobin, myoglobin
Respiration: Alveolar Gas Exchange I — Review of partial pressure.
Respiration: Alveolar Gas Exchange II
Respiration — Extensive info, diagrams
Respiratory Function
Respiratory System I
Respiratory System II
Respiratory System — Comprehensive with many topical hyperlinks, diagrams

Tissues and Organs

Animal Tissues — Drawings, information and hyperlinks
Blood Elements
Bones, Joints and Muscles — Medline health information
Connective TissueI
Connective Tissue II— Brief Descriptions
Ear: Dizziness & Motion Sickness
Epithelia Study Guide
Epithelium I — Lab & summary
Epithelium II
Epithelial Tissue — Structure, function
Epthelium Tissue — Squamous, Columnar, Cuboidal
Extracellular Matrix: Collagens, Fibronectin, Laminin
Goose Bumps
Hair Structure: Alpha-helix Proteins, Disulfide Bonds — Info, illustrations
Hair Structure: Disulfide Bonds
Histology — Cell specialization
Liver, Gallbladder. Pancreas Structure Function
Liver Function
Integumentary System — Hair, skin, nails, glands, hyperlinks, diagrams
Muscle Contraction
Muscle Tissue, Smooth, Skeletal
Nervous Tissue
Organ Systems and Homeostasis — Comprehensive with 20+ hyperlinks, diagrams
Sensory and Balance Organs — Structure, function
Skin Anatomy
Skin Function
Skin: Function and Development
Skin: Structure and Function
Stem Cell Function
Stem Cell Research: Pros & Cons I
Stem Cell Research: Pros & Cons II
Stem Cell Research: Pros & Cons III
Stem Cells — Ultimate spare parts?
Stem Cells Primer
Tissues and Cells — Comprehensive with 20+ topical hyperlinks, diagrams

Unit Photos, Illustrations, GIF's

Antibody: IgG Structure — Labeled diagram
Artery and Vein I
Artery and Vein II
Blood Cells — ID'ed and Illustrations
Blood Cells: Origins, Illustrations
Blood Cells: Red
Blood Cells: White
Blood Circulation I Blood Circulation II
Brain I Brain II
Capillary Exchange — Animation
Connective Tissue — Photomicrographic images
Duodenum — Pancrease, gall bladder & ductshttp://
Ear Anatomy — Illustration Ear: Internal — Illustration
Embryo: Cleavage
Embryo: Human
Eye I Eye II
Female Reproductive System I Reproductive System II
Gametogenesis I — Oocyte, spermatocyte II — Oocyte, spermatocyte
Hemoglobin Molecular Structure
Hemoglobin Molecule
Hemoglobin Structure — Info, diagrams
Heart I Heart II
Human Heart and Circulation
Heart Structure Hypothalmus and Pituitary
Insulin Structure I
Insulin Structure II
Intestinal Lining I
Intestinal Lining II
Intestines I Intestines II
Kidney I
Kidney II — Labeled diagram
Male Reproductive System I
Male Reproductive System II — X-sections labeled
Menstrual Cycle I Cycle II
Mouth, Teeth
Muscle Anatomy — Internal links
Muscle Fiber
Muscles I — Frontal view
Muscles II — Frontal view
Muscles III — Frontal view
Muscles I — Rear view II — Rear view
Muscles III — Rear view
Nephron I
Neuron II
Neuron III
Neuron IV
Neurons: Brain I — Labeled diagrams
Neurons: Brain II — Labeled diagrams
Organs of the Body I
Organs of the Body II — Labeled structures
Pituitary Gland
Reflex Arc — Labeled diagram (with interneuron) Stomach, Liver, Gall Bladder, Duodenum Teeth Synapse — labeled diagram
Systems of the Body — Labeled structures
T-cells — Illustration, function
Teeth I
Teeth II
Teeth III
Tooth I — Cross section
Tooth II — Cross section
Tooth III — Cross section
Skeletal System I — Frontal view Skeletal System II — Rear view h
Villi — Intestinal cross section Villus